In their book, Graphic Design: The New Basics, Ellen Lupton and Jennifer Cole Phillips discuss the close relationship between time and motion and how those two connect particularly in graphic design and comic books. They are closely related because motion is the passing or movement of some perceived amount of time. They play a big role in making movies or any other sort of animations. A lot of the time, you can see motion through the scale of certain objects in an image in relation to surrounding objects. For example, you could see a basketball rolling farther and farther away, but getting closer to a building and we would be able to see the motion because of this, or even in this image when you can see the the interior of the house and then in later frames, you can see a far away image of the house. Time passed between those two frames similarly to how the time passed between the middle frames with the man having a conversation over the phone. This is described as implied motion, which is motion that readers can see without any actual indication of motion. Graphic designers will also overlap different shapes to give a sense of motion. In the image above for example, there is black hand shape that is overlapping a woman’s body, but that is actually her hand and we can see that she is reaching outwards because of the overlapping of images as well as the cropping that was used to focus in on the woman and the motion she is making with her hands. A change in rotation will also provide a sense of motion because the object itself is changing, moving, spinning, or flipping around to capture movement. The image above shows a more subtle example of rotation when the man is inside of the house in one frame compared to the other frame where you can see the outside of the house. This is an example of rotation of the images or the scene in general. Repetition is yet another key component of perceiving time and motion and there is a good example of it in the bottom three frames of the image above, specifically the the frame on the bottom right of the page. You can see that the frame consists of some photographic film and inside of that film is a man with his hands raised in the air. You can only partially see this, but if you look closely, you can tell that the same image of the man is in the film roll three times in a row. Now it may look like he is in the exact same position in all of the film, but even the smallest of movements will create motion over time with the use of repetition and changes in shape or rotation.
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